To Be Seen and Not To Be Seen in Environmental Design

Document Type : Original Article


1 Department of Industrial Design, School of Architecture and Environmental Design, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran, Iran.

2 University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.

3 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.


Perception as a general idea is related to different scientific issues that are involved in cross-disciplinary knowledge. Gestalt theory as the main concept of the research was surveyed to answer why the objects are either seen or not seen in an environment. Objects were evaluated with a visual questionnaire. The results showed the role of inherent features of objects' contribution to their backgrounds. The test was an empirical inquiry and the result of the test will be used for safety design, environmental design, and product design. The data were analyzed using a hierarchical analytical process. The human visual system is the main entrance of visual data presented in our environment. Not only does the system play the function of an active surveillance system that lets us make decisions according to our sensations, but also it has the role of the passive surveillance system for the subliminal stimulus that we cannot understand consciously. To study such a complex system of perception, it is needed to use advanced equipment. However, what we did was using the most available method to study it.


Baars, B. J. (1999). Attention versus consciousness in the visual brain: Differences in conception, phenomenology, behavior, neuroanatomy, and physiology. Journal of General Psychology. 126(3), p. 224–233. DOI: 10.1080/00221309909595364
Baars, B. J., & Gage, N. (2010). Cognition, brain, and consciousness. Introduction to cognitive neuroscience. 2nd Edition. eBook ISBN: 9780123814401.
Baker, B., Lansdell, B., & Kording, K. (2021). A philosophical understanding of representation for neuroscience. Cornell University.
Best, J. (2017). Colour Design. Theories and applications. 2nd Edition. The Textile Institute Book Series. ISBN: 9780081012703.
Chinchu, C. (2021). Cognitive biases in everyday life. NOOK Book ID: 2940165062179.
Ellis, G. (2018). Cognitive biases in visualizations. ISBN: 978-3-319-95830-9. ISBN:978-3-319-95831-6 (eBook). Library of Congress Control Number: 2018950785.
Fiksel, J. (2009). Design for environment: A guide to sustainable product development: Eco-efficient product development. 2nd Edition. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Gage, N. M., & Baars, B. (2018). Fundamentals of cognitive neuroscience: A beginner’s Guide. 2nd  Edition. Academic Press.
Hanusch, D., & Birkhofer, H. (2010). Creating socially sustainable products – examinating influence and responsibility of engineering designers. International Design Conference – Design 2010. Dubrovnik – Croatia, May 17 – 20.
Lamme, V. A. F. (2020). Visual functions generating conscious seeing. Frontiers Psychology.
Maria, P., & Bharath, A. (2012). Next generation artificial vision systems: Reverse engineering the human visual system (Bioinformatics & Biomedical Imaging). 1st Edition. ISBN-13: 978-1596932241. ISBN-10: 1596932244.
Nieslony, M., & Gussen, J. (2008). Richard Serra in Germany: Perspectivity in perspective. The University of Chicago Press Journals. RES: Anthropology and Aesthetics 2008. 3, p. 53-54.
Overgaard, M., & Sandberg, K. (2021). The perceptual awareness scale—recent controversies and debates. Neuroscience of Consciousness. Published Online 15 December. DOI: 10.1093/NC/niab044
Pitts, M. A., Lutsyshyna, L. A., & Hillyard, S. A. (2018). The relationship between attention and consciousness: An expanded taxonomy and implications for “no-report” paradigms. Philosophical Transactions of The Royal Society B, Biological Sciences. 373(1755). DOI:10.1098/rstb.2017.0348
Ramos, V. J. (2018). Analyzing the role of cognitive biases in the decision-making process (Advancec in psychology, mental health, and behavioral studies). IGI Global.
Sintowoko, D. A. W., & Hidayat, S. (2021). Eco-friendly for product design: A literature review. IOP Conference Series Earth and Environmental Science. 905(012023). DOI:10.1088/1755-1315/905/1/012023
Skóra, Z., Ciupińska, K., Pin, S. H. D., Overgaard, M., & Wierzchoń, M. (2021). Investigating the validity of the Perceptual Awareness Scale – The effect of task-related difficulty on subjective rating. Conscious Cogn. 95(103197). DOI: 10.1016/j.concog.2021.103197
Smith, M. E. (2021). Inspiring green consumer choices: Leverage neuroscience to reshape marketplace Behavior. 1st Edition. Kogan Page.
Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2012). Cognitive Psychology. 6th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-1-111-34476-4. ISBN-10: 1-111-34476-0.
Sternberg, R. J., & Sternberg, K. (2017). Cognitive Psychology. 7th Edition. ISBN-13: 978-1305644656. ISBN-10: 1305644654.
Wagemans, J., Elder, J. H., Kubovy, M., Palmer, S. E., Peterson, M. A., Singh, M., & Heydt, R. V. D. (2012). A century of Gestalt psychology in visual perception: I. Perceptual grouping and figure-ground organization. PMC PubMed Central, PMC3482144. DOI: 10.1037/a0029333
Warren, W. H. (2012). Does this computational theory solve the right problem? Marr, Gibson, and the Goal of Vision. Sage Journals.